Friday, February 7, 2020

Quantum probability communications Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Quantum probability communications - Essay Example I have also observed that labour shortage and high unemployment coexist in the labour market of China. In fact, these issues have cropped up in recent years. The total number of students passing out from different universities in China has increased considerably in 2014 compared to 2013.   The quarter of January-March, 2014 evidenced around 1293 million graduate job seekers looking for employment opportunities in China, but have not been successful in getting a job across 102 cities through employment agencies. The unemployment rate in the major cities of China including rural migrants stood at 8.7% in the 1st quarter of 2014 (Voxeu.org, 2015). On the other hand, the percentage comes to 6.9% if the rural migrants are excluded. This can be explained through the lack of required skills among the local graduate candidates in China. In the view of Chan (2015), the labour shortage in China can be met by offering more employment opportunities to the migrant workers and expanding employme nt agencies.   Thus, the current shortage of labour supply in China would offer better job opportunities and career prospect to migrant workers like me. In continuation to this, the Chinese market has become a suitable destination for the Japanese companies. This can further increase the job demand for migrant employees.   Lack of multiple job-oriented skills seems to be the key reason for the inability of young graduates to secure a job in China. This further makes me suitable as a potential employee in China because of my knowledge.

Wednesday, January 29, 2020

Discuss the Character and Functions of Sandra Essay Example for Free

Discuss the Character and Functions of Sandra Essay Beautiful Thing is set in London this is used to illustrate what Sandras character is like. Sandra Gangle is a tough middle class woman, who lives in a tidy council flat in South London. Sandra is house proud she likes everything in it to be nice looking. An example of this is the hanging baskets hanging on the wall out side her house. Sandra also looks after her self we can tell this by the Body Shop products on the floor. Sandra has many roles in this play, which include being mother, neighbour, barmaid, single parent, workingwoman and a girlfriend. Sandra is a survivor in the sense that she is bringing up a son all on her own and she has to pay for every thing her self. When I had three pee in my purse I went robbing for that boy This Indicates Sandras loyalty towards to her son, and how much she cares for him and tries to provide for him. An alternative example of how deprived Sandra was that I couldnt afford a cot This proves that however much Sandra tried and robbed she still couldnt afford the basics. Sandra is also very abusive, using foul language to insult people. A good example of Sandras abusive language is the first word of the play, which is SLAG. This shows a major part of Sandras character and is used to set the scene for the rest of the story. Although Sandra uses foul language she prevents Jamie using it by saying Language, Jamie! when he tells Leah I dont need fuckin elp. This is because it is disrespectful to use to bad language and she wants to bring him up to the best of her ability. Foul language is mainly used to add tension to the story. Sandra character is harsh in the way that she talks to people. This can be demonstrated by the way she talks to Leah on several occasions Face facts Leah, no bugger wants you and shut up By saying this Sandra is being tactless and insensitive towards Leahs feelings. Sandra is most thoughtless towards Leah. Sandra is also harsh in the way she describes Steves father We all know his dad leathers him, Im only having a laugh. This is used to demonstrate how heartless and insensitive Sandra really is. Steves father was very aggressive towards him on numerous occasions. He punches him for know reason and even threw him out once for burning the toast. One time when Steve was thrown out he went round to see Sandra to explain what had happened to him. The type of caring person that Sandra is she took him in. After listening to Steve she told him he could stay the night. Then said this to Steves dad Your little Stevens round at our place tonight. Ive every mind to report you. This shows the sensitive and caring side that Sandra has. Among all Sandras responsibilities she tries her best to monitor Jamies progress at school. Sandra makes sure of this by the phrase I shall be checking your homework when I get in. This is to ensure he is doing well. Sandra is also very unreliable like when she is supposed to check Jamies homework she doesnt even though she promises too do so. Telling Jamie Ooh, Sod that, Im knackered gives a mixed impression that she is trying her best to provide money but is short of time due to working, and this is why she is tired. Another shocking point is that Sandra is incredibly judgemental. Coming to negative conclusions without thinking about the consequences and affects that it has on other people. Sandra proves her character is judgemental by telling Leah A Leopard never changes its spots and a slapper never changes her knickers. An alternative example of Sandra being judgmental is when she tells Jamie I want you inside. Shes a bad influence. Both these quotes prove how Sandra is quick to form an unpleasant opinion of someone. Additionally Sandra is also extremely boastful and is keen to tell others about her achievements. Bragging to a group of friends telling them I won that hanging basket in the south east Thames barmaid at the year awards. Sandra is proving that she is significantly more than an average barmaid the proof of this was winning the award.

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

Jarassic Park: The Dinosaurs Were Not To Blame For The Destruction of Jurassic Park :: essays research papers

Jarassic Park: The Dinosaurs Were Not To Blame For The Destruction of Jurassic Park   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  'Nature won't be stopped .......or blamed for what happens'(Ian Malcolm , Jurassic Park by Michael Crichton). Jurassic Park mystifies its critique even as it makes it; or rather, to be more precise, it offers us contradictory messages about whom to blame for what goes wrong. Science finally takes the blame. Near the end of the book, while the humans are fighting off the velociraptors, Malcolm (the mathematician) delivers a long and didactic speech about how science is to blame for messing up the world because it has no morality; science tells us how to do things, not what things are worth doing and why. Malcolm talks about how the inventions of science, like Jurassic Park, are fated to exceed our control, just as his chaos theory predicts. According to Malcolm, chaos theory was developed in response to problems like predicting the weather, and the theory says it simply can't be predicted beyond the space of a few days, because the forces involved are too complex and unstable. If everything in a popular narrative like Jurassic Park really means something else, then so too does chaos theory.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The basic plot of Jurassic Park is fairly simple. A Palo Alto corporation called International Genetics Technologies, Inc. (InGen) has become able -- through an entrepreneurial combination of audacity, technology, human ingenuity, and fantastic outlays of capital (mostly funded by Japanese investors, who are the only ones willing to wait years for uncertain results) -- to clone dinosaurs from the bits of their DNA recovered from dinosaur blood inside the bodies of insects that once bit the now-extinct animals and were then trapped and preserved in amber for millions of years. (This is, by the way, theoretically possible.) The project is the dream of John Hammond, a billionaire capitalist with a passionate interest in dinosaurs, who comes across in the novel as a bizarre combination of Ross Perot and Ronald Reagan -- part authoritarian martinet, part dissociated and childish old man. With the resources of his wealth and power, Hammond buys a rugged island a hundred or so miles off the coast of Costa Rica and turns it into Jurassic Park, 'the most advanced amusement park in the world,' with attractions 'so astonishing they would capture the imagination of the entire world': a population of living, breathing actual dinosaurs.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  With the park just a year away from opening to the public (those rich enough to pay, that is), the nervous investors insist on sending a team to the island to determine whether or not the park is as safe and under control as

Monday, January 13, 2020

The Use Of Ethical Behavior Commerce Essay

Yes, in the concern leading, if ethical is used it will pay off in the long tally. Through the apprehension of the common ethical issues like quality, safety, belongings, and human relationship in the work place, are the specialised cognition will help in the development of concern leading through its leaders. To pay off in the long tally of the concern leading by the leaders. Harmonizing to the three theoreticians, of the three bookmans, Heifetz, Burns and Greenleaf: The value in the workplace depends on the followings of the leader which involves certain authorization for the public presentation. Besides within the workplace there are ( some ) codification of moralss which are necessary ( should ) to be followed by the leaders and employees ( people ) of the company in order to keep ( for the maintains of ) the company moralss and ( the ) moral criterions, hence supplying established guidelines and demands for a developed company. Through this, the company can be identified as a co ncern with good established leading qualities, taking by illustration and in bend supplying clear aims for all employees. This besides demonstrates to the employees the sense of teamwork and duty hence doing the workplace a more effectual environment for all workers and productiveness. ( which give the strongest for the full company and when the company seems to hold the strong leading they have the full aim to supply the strong service to the full people ) . When I combine theses three theories it will be explicating about the development of the followings values which suppose to supply the certain service holding the consistency of some authorization under the codification of ethic for the company value and norms. It is little completed to happen out what is right and incorrect with in the people holding the work in the company so it comes with the moral behaviour and the judgement of right and incorrect. So the sum-up of the whole full essay about the ethical behaviour is to keep the moral values and norms for the being of the company for the criterions along with the outstanding place of the company ( Minning & A ; Curtis, 2009 ) . If we go back for the traditional leading system it described most of the clip for the power holder by the CEO which we called more governments and seems like humdrum. Where people do non bask their rights and do non experience more democratic which takes the being of the company in bad repute. Meantime somewhat we can depict the ethic in spiritual manner where the account is on the footing of theistic apprehension which means what is the existent and good by the God shaping. The following cellar of the moral principle is based on scientific discipline where moral principle is understood by the Scientifics cogent evidence which are called as Secular ethic. If the leader fails to form the ends and aims because of the sum of the clip or some disjunction among the human relationship even though people find it is really difficult to forgive who is immoral and non ethical so those people are treated as non ethical and non respected and non trusted excessively. The value of the ethical lea ding is determine rightness and inappropriateness of all the values that have by the leaders even it is really of import for the success vision. If we see around the universe as a illustration of the good leading form the point of position of good moral and ethical manner I can advert the Mahatma Gandhi. The manner he treat to the people and the things he did for the people and state are regarded for public assistance to the people and state. The waies, memo and all the actions of the communicate take topographic point to the common quality, security, human relationship, which was really strong in him which took his leading to be a good leader. He used to show his life experience to clear up some of the combustion job which one of his good manner of clear uping to the job and the people. The leader who is honest, unselfish and dedicated to his action decidedly success his mission and aims which Mahatma Gandhi did and appreciated around the universe by his dedication to state and the people. The moralss and values come under the determination and policies doing where demand to be serious and secure which play really of import function for the future public presentation that lead the whole full people and the company in the succeeding ways. The forfeits of the clip, leader beliefs or values system will find personal and organisational success. So it is really safe to research the leader ‘s value system in the personally with organized manner. The followerss six moral values should hold a witting leader which regarded as moral moralss: Honesty is one of the really of import lesson values which come every portion of the personal behaviour and it relates where the leader attached for the public presentations. The leader should cognize himself or herself either he or she has honestness or non. When leader is pass oning to the followings or clients he or she should be Honesty. So this is indispensable quality as being the leader which keeps the moral ethical component for the good public presentation. Responsibility is another component which is uniting to the moral ethical value. A leader should be responsible for the whole company including concern activities and traffics with the employers, clients, keeping to the merchandise quality and so on which support to success the company ends and aims. The leaders duties are the illustrations to the components so the life of the leader on his duty which the leader make it and how did he do where the full people are traveling to follow.The leader might take the best and fit different so other thoughts for the resolution job which would be singular and noticeable by the full company and the people. Continuity is another quality of a leader as practician in existent life and the concern excessively in any company informal and formal. The leaders ‘ thoughts may non useful all the clip, when it seems like useless so leader does non hold to be frustrated. Leaderships should hold the continuity ability to carry through the nucleus mission of the company and leader. So one time the leader fails to pull the benefit for the company he or she should non go forth the leading. Consideration is another factor which appreciates to make the activities for the improvement of the company by the members if this cardinal point is in the head of the leader. If leader expect something making good organize the staffs so leader besides have to carry through some outlook of the client, clients, employers, commission and the community. In this instance the leader should hold the consideration capacity if the followings have done some incorrect reactions and actions excessively. The thought towards leaders ‘ signifier the follower is like really of import individual and knows everything because of the tonss of experience and survey. Because of this ground leader should come with the advanced thoughts brushs with different good public presentation to turn out that leader is good equipped with all the elements which can be described as Excellency. If leader comes any new thoughts with holding the slogan of the company improvement and their will be significance of holding slogan and anything making worth is deserving making. Devotion to the full profession is average to love to the work and walk to the destine finish where understanding and the committedness are the indispensable portion of the profession. Leading a company is challengeable occupation where certain promises and finding demand to make which assist to carry through the committedness and make the finish. To see the importance of the life as professional is person to love and lament to make the things. Dedication and devotedness are the elements to hold the involvement to the full work which comes from the committedness. So the committedness is really of import for the parts of ethical values and norms as a leader of the concern company. The above values should mind of by the leaders for the keeping excellence of the things to be done, be responsible for the promising things holding the considerations for the considerable things, maintaining the strict pattern for continuity and be committed as honest leader which is really of import moral ethic with values and norms ( Minning & A ; Curtis, 2009 ) . To pay the long tally away in the leading in concern by utilizing the ethical behaviour should truly hold to concern to the client, employees, stockholders and community. The demands of the clients particularly supplying the quality of the merchandise which can be stated by the art of the merchandise. The clean working environment, fairness judgement on the worker public presentation and organizing their potency to the employees by the leaders is seems on the ethical behaviour. Expecting the returns from the investings maintaining the same criterion of the growing within the concern and keeping the standard quality of the ethical behaviour for the well existences of full society. Codes of moralss are the elements of the tolerance in making the organisational plants and the intervention to the members of the organisation and the whole full society. The more you have the good moralss and values the more you can portion your thoughts clearly and that helps you to be better leader. The a bility to advance the moral and ethic behaviour by the leaders is to advance him as active and effectual leader to keep the certain end in concern.BibliographyGeorge Manning, K. C. ( 2007 ) . Ethic at work. In K. George, The art of Leadership ( pp. 120-136 ) . New York: Mc Graw-Hill. Manning, G. , & A ; Curtis, K. ( 2009 ) . behavior influences employee behavior and the organisation. In k. C. George Manning, The art of the leading ( pp. 92-121 ) . New York: Mc Graw-Hill. Minning, G. , & A ; Curtis, K. ( 2009 ) . Leadership Ethic. In K. C. George Manning, The Art of Leadership ( p. 92 ) . New York: McGraw-Hill.â€Å" Within the concern context, concerns are expected to hold good ethical values and move socially responsible. The job is that the moralss of a concern is a mixture of the single sets of moralss. This is why it is of import to hold good persons as employees. it is besides every bit of import that when you go to work someplace that you feel like you portion the values of those you work with. Ethic is non merely speaking about the right thing. It is making what is the right in every determination that is made. †Based on the above observation discuss the impact on society that ethical leaders can do.misbehavior ion of the moralss means losing the cost of societal and economic where ethical values and societal act play really of import function for the company economic position which determine by the determination of the ethical point of position. The regulations of the plants are described to the employees of the concern by the leaders where the thoughts are reflected for the clip being. The thoughts should be stated every bit clearly as the leader can with the few Numberss of points which should turn to to the members of the concern every bit to all by the implementing the ethical determination at work. When the concern runs with the certain ethical norms and values holding the codification of ethic which reference to all the related organic structures of the concern like governmental, employees, communicative environment, concern, production every bit good consumer and with their relation. From that reference the leaders have to recognize that at the terminal of the any production they will play the really of import function In different ways. The cardinal and direct impacting point by the ethical determination at work is the clients, employees, proprietors and the citizens who truly use the merchandises. The usage of the ethical determination is try to do happy all the constituencies, wholly devoted to the full intent of the concern, agreed to hold the learn in order to the acquiring new thoughts and have the alteration one. The determination should be all over the best whatever they do. The illustration of good ethical determination as I have got it from the large and celebrated organisation which is Telecom.Ltd.This organisation is good established and good service oriented aiming to the community and their day-to-day activities. They provide the map of the full community harmonizing to the demand of the people and they deal of the whole combustion issues at the average clip. The leader of this organisation is altering clip and once more and they are good trained. The staffs of this organisation are every bit handling on the footing of the ethical determination which is taking whole full organisation in the right place. We are holding tonss of the natural job around the universe like landslide, temblors, tsunamis, implosion therapy and so on, whenever these crises come they are ready to assist to the defected household, society and the countries by the different tools with finance besides which seems different ethical values and norms.That makes the criterion of th e organisation holding the beliefs and the committedness where the all the members of the organisation have the feeling of the fusion that brings the full community really strong and trust by implementing the ethical determination at the practical degree. Because of the with the codification of ethic and its values and norms Telecom.Ltd holding the societal and economical cost is really good which is the demand of the today ‘s organisation. They are socially responsible have a good ethical values which is lead by the leader who has mixture of the single sets of moralss. Every person employee has good relationship organize the ethical values and norms with leader. When they work they truly portion thoughts each other ‘s and they do non maintain on speaking and taking the ethic merely they truly implement in existent work which should be. Employees have the pride of their company with the quite fairness behaviour behind the defined demand of the occupation is the consequence of the moral principle at work in the work topographic point. The criterion of the life direction, trust, and the financially strongest are the dependant of the company ‘s success by utilizing the determination with ethical norms and values. The full clime of ethical environment can be stated by the. Higher clime is the higher fiscal positions which can be described by the best companies satisfy their societal and fiscal position. So there is the large impact in the society that ethical leader can do. The leader is the applied scientist of the company or the driver of the whole company. ( George Manning, 2007 )

Saturday, January 4, 2020

The Cask Of Amontillado By Edward Allan Poe - 847 Words

Edward Allan Poe the writer of â€Å"The Cask of Amontillado,† has successfully created an image of pride can lead two great man to their downfall. A person with a pride of a former noble. A wine merchant with a pride of the best judgment in wine. An epic war to be remember. Poe has created a whole new meaning for the word itself. He has describe pride as vengeance, desire, and loss. At the beginning of the story, the narrator, Montresor has proven himself as a person of intellect. He has carefully planned a murder which will not only punish the target, he will do it without any consequences. Montresor stated, â€Å"[Fortunato] are rich, respected, admired, beloved; [Fortunato] are happy, as once [he] was. â€Å" It indicates he was once rich. â€Å"We will go back; [Fortunato] will be ill, and I cannot be responsible.† Propose his position cannot be responsible to the harm done to Fortunato It has created a spark of his revenge. He said, â€Å"THE thousand injuries of Fortunato I had borne as I best could† suggests that he has suffered many times, yet lack of injuries indicate it is all emotional wounds that could never be healed. The only way he can get his vengeance is to make his nemesis, Fortunato suffer. For his great plan, Montresor has prepare his enemy a reason, a motive, and a location to lead him in a dead end. Fortunato is a wealthy wi ne merchant, who would never turned down a good look of precious wine and rarities. His pride is no less than Montresor. Despite the fact he is lookedShow MoreRelatedThe Cask of Amontillado by Edgar Allan Poe Essay1693 Words   |  7 PagesThe Cask of Amontillado by Edgar Allan Poe In The Cask of Amontillado, Edgar Allan Poe uses several different artistic choices in the construction of the story. He manipulates the story to be the way he wants it to be by using the point of view of the narrator, the setting, and a common monotonous sentiment throughout. Poe is successful in maintaining a spirit of perverseness that is prevalent in most of his works. The point of view plays a very important role in influencing the readers perceptionRead MoreThemes in the Writing of Edgar Allan Poe that Mirror his Personal Life1379 Words   |  6 PagesBoston, Massachusetts. His father an actor abandoned the family when he was one years old and his mother an actress died of tuberculosis when 2 yrs old. His foster parents cared for him as a young child and their last names were Allan. This is where his full name Edgar Allan Poe comes from. When he was in college he wrote all of his walls and came of gloomy and depressed to some classmates. He removed his self from the college because of gambling debts. He marries his very young cousin Virginia ClemmRead More The Paradox of Revenge in Edgar Allan Poes The Cask of Amontillado1375 Words   |  6 Pagesin Edgar Allan Poes The Cask of Amontillado ?The Cask of Amontillado? raises a question pertaining to the multiple character of the self (Davidson 202); Can harmony of ones self be restored once primal impulses have been acted upon? This question proposes the fantasy of crime without consequence (Stepp 60). Edgar Allan Poe uses first person point of view, vivid symbolism and situational irony to show that because of mans inner self, revenge is ultimately not possible. Edward DavidsonRead MoreLiterary Techniques : Edgar Allan Poe And Richard Connell1598 Words   |  7 Pagesposition in the history of literature. Well known authors, such as Edgar Allan Poe and Richard Connell, use specific literary techniques to inspire and horrify young minds through their timeless works of literature. Biography of Edgar A. Poe To start, Edgar Allan Poe suffered through tragedy, poverty, and failure most of his life, all trials that would mold him into a master of macabre literature. In January of 1809, Edgar Allan Poe, writer and poet, â€Å"†¦was born in Boston, Massachusetts. Poe’s fatherRead MoreThe Cask Of Amontillado By Edgar Allan Poe1076 Words   |  5 PagesThe short story, The Cask of Amontillado, written by Edgar Allan Poe is a story of terror and betrayal. Like many of Poe’s literary works, the story has a dark undertone with a theme of terror and depression. More than half a century ago, Marshall McLuhan argued that though Poe was fascinated by evil, the evil that he had in mind was not that of Calvinism, but that of the split man and the split civilization. In general, McLuhan was right, but in this instance Calvinism, and its God, provided a darkRead MoreThe Gettysburg Address By Henry Wadsworth1548 Words   |  7 Pagesto show how the white people of America viewed the mselves as the alpha’s of society and showed little respect for any other ethnicities. Poe, Edgar Allan. â€Å"The Cask of Amontillado.† Short Stories and Classic Literature, americanliterature.com/author/edgar-allan-poe/short-story/the-cask-of-amontillado. Poe’s short story, The Cask of Amontillado focuses on two main characters Montresor and Fortunato.The narrator Montresor is very upset with the wine connoisseur, Fortunato, and is explainingRead MoreSimilarities Between Edgar Allen Poes Life and His Literary Works1357 Words   |  6 PagesAllen Poes Life and His Literary Works In Edgar Allan Poes lifetime and today, critics think that there are striking similarities between what Poe lived and what he wrote. His melancholy, often-depressing stories are thought to reflect his feelings. There is truth to this, although his entire life was not miserable. In fact, in some of his poems, the good characters are modeled after him. Edgar Allan Poes writing was affected by many things in his life, including his turbulentRead More Edgar Allan Poe: Life and Works Essay2848 Words   |  12 Pagesnbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Edgar Allan Poe was a literary genius of his time. His works may seem eccentric but beneath the words and stories lies a solemn, alone boy whose only way of comfort and relief was through his pen. Of the critical reviews I have studied pertaining to Poe, never has such a varied difference of opinions been presented or suggested towards a writer. It is thought that his life had a major influence on his writing and by reading many of his pieces I ag ree with that statement. Edgar Poe was born inRead MoreHistory of the Development of the Short Story.3660 Words   |  15 Pages(1824–26) and Nikolai Gogols Evenings on a Farm Near Dikanka (1831–32). The first examples in the United States are Charles Brockden Browns Somnambulism (1805), Washington Irvings Rip van Winkle (1819) and The Legend of Sleepy Hollow (1820), Edgar Allan Poes Tales of the Grotesque and Arabesque (1840) and Nathaniel Hawthornes Twice-Told Tales (1842). In the latter 19th century, the growth of print magazines and journals created a strong demand for short fiction of between 3,000 and 15,000Read MoreANALIZ TEXT INTERPRETATION AND ANALYSIS28843 Words   |  116 Pagesthe following methods: 1. CHARACTERIZATION THROUGH THE USE OF NAMES. Names are often used to provide essential clues that aid in characterization. Some characters are given names that suggest their dominant or controlling traits, as, for example, Edward Murdstone (in Dickens’ David Copperfield) and Roger Chillingsworth (in Hawthorne’s The Scarlet Letter). Both men are cold-hearted villains their names suggest. Other characters are given names that reinforce (or sometimes are in contrast to) their

Friday, December 27, 2019

Experiments Are Done Using Testing - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 5 Words: 1395 Downloads: 5 Date added: 2019/04/12 Category Biology Essay Level High school Topics: Animal Testing Essay Did you like this example? Experiments are done using testing of many different species. Scientists use humans to determine certain things about society and use animals to test products, medications, or diseases. Such experiments can be ineffective or unnecessary due to these animals not even being able to attract the same diseases or disorders as many humans. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Experiments Are Done Using Testing" essay for you Create order With that being said, I argue that animal testing should not be tolerated under any circumstance because they are cruel and unreliable testing methods. Moral theories such as Utilitarianism and Deontology relate to the topic of animal testing and help me to enforce this movement. In this paper, I argue that the utilitarian stance on animal testing provides a superior argument about animal testing over the moral theory of deontology. John Stuart Mill wrote Utilitarianism and is known as one of the most influential theories on society even 150 years after it was written. Utilitarianism or the Greatest Happiness Principle is defined, in The Ethical Life: Fundamental Readings in Ethics and Moral Problems, as, actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness, wrong as they tend to produce the reverse of happiness, (Mill 98). The most important part of this theory, I believe, is that to achieve the goal of happiness in a utilitarianism aspect, is to not only achieve the happiness of just the agent, but all of those who are concerned. This means that in a situation where more than one being, or living thing, alls happiness must be taken into consideration and accounted for. In an NCBI article titled Utilitarian and Deontological Ethics in Medicine, discusses utilitarian and deontological approaches that deal with conflicts and complications in medical ethics. It states, In the utilitarian approach, decisions are chose based on the greatest amount of benefit obtained for the greatest number of individuals. It continues on to say, According to rule utilitarianism, a morally right decision is an action complying moral codes/rules leading to better consequences, (Mandal Ponnambath Parja paragraph 3). It is important to understand how the definition of utilitarianism emphasizes the importance of focusing on the happiness of all those that are concerned and not only the specified agent. Immanuel Kant discusses good will and categorical imperative using deontological ethics in The Ethical Life: Fundamental Readings in Ethics and Moral Problems. Though he does not specifically define deontology in the text, it is defined by an Ethics Unwrapped article from the McCombs School of Business at the University of Texas as, an ethical theory that uses rules to distinguish right from wrong. This theory is associated with Kant because he believed that ethical actions that are seen as morally correct are related to moral laws such as refraining from lying, stealing, or cheating. In the textbook, Kant discusses how we could act morally as a society and enforce good will overall. He sets out two tests for morally acceptable action, one being, actions are morally acceptable only when the principles that inspire them can be acted on by everyone consistently, and the second being a requirement to, treat humanity always as an end in itself, and never as a mere means. With these things being said, it is hard to determine the true definition of good and all of the abstractions that can come from these definitions. Both moral theories help me to argue against the subject of animal testing in different ways. Utilitarianism is discussed in an extensive article titled, Animal Rights Theory and Utilitarianism: Relative Normative Guidance. Gary Francione uses this article to explain animal rights along with utilitarianism while discussing the pros and cons of both topics. I will be focusing mainly on the cons of animal testing and the pros of utilitarianism as it pertains to the subject in order to build and shape my argument against animal testing. Peter Singer has his own utilitarian theory that are similar to Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill, them being utilitarians as well. Singer believes that the consequences of the contemplated act are the ones that matter as opposed to those that follow. Francione writes, Pleasure and pain matter because they are a part of what humans and nonhumans desire or prefer or seek to avoid. In Animal Liberation, Singer argues that in assessing the consequences of our actions, it is necessary to take the interests of animals seriously and to weigh any adverse affect on those interests from human actions as part of the consequences of those actions. I believe the most important part of this sections of the article is how Singer believes speciesism is discrimination just as sexism or racism is. This is an important part of my argument because this stresses how if we are not able to discriminate against humans, what makes it right to harm or take the lives of animals? Humans are not of a higher power over any other species and were never personally given the right to take the lives of other living things unless it was a necessity to survive. One may argue that animal testing is done in order to allow humans to endure a longer life by finding ways to cure cancer or other life-threatening diseases, but with the technology that has evolved, we must use those resources to prevent health and medical issues instead of taking the lives of other species. The article continues on the say, For Singer, the rightness or wrongness of conduct is determined by consequences, and not by any appeal to right. Francione then writes, Singer opposes most animal experimentation, only because he thinks that most animal experiments produce benefi ts that are insufficient to justify the animal suffering that results. This is also an important part of the article because this helps to emphasize how animal testing does not have an end result of happiness for all of those concerned. The Hastings Center Report from The Ethics of Animal Experimentation and Research, written by Strachan Donnelley and Kathleen Nolan explored the complex ethical issues surrounding animal testing in depth. With deontology focusing solely on the immediate decision of whether an action is good or bad, ignoring the following consequences, Tom Regan is a contemporary deontologist that believes animals have a significant moral status and that any animal testing or experimentation is immoral and must be avoided at all costs. The article reads, The deontological emphasis on respect and justice for the individual often underlies the judgment that it is wrong to be callous or casual about the use of animals even where those attitudes dont result in actual harm, (Donnelly Nolan 6). This is important to understand because deontology explains that even if there is no harm caused during the process of animal testing, it is still immoral to act on them for experimentation. Personally, I believe the utilitarian argument against animal testing is a better argument. In the article I used to create my deontological argument, Donnelly and Nolan also discussed the utilitarian views. It reads, Probably the most common justification is that the benefits gained from such research far outweigh the suffering of experimental animals, (Donnelly Nolan 4-5). It continues to say on page 5 that, Unless one is prepared to argue that animals simply lack the capacity for morally relevant interests and desires, any consistent form of utilitarianism that includes pleasures, suffering, or interests in its account of good must accord sentient animals a significant moral status. Overall, the utilitarian argument is a better argument as opposed to deontological theories because the definition on its own speaks for all species. Anyone who is involved must be accounted for in any action to promote happiness in utilitarianism while deontology focuses on good or bad actions without focusing on the following consequences. If animal testing was to be done to find a cure for cancer, and the animal ended up losing its life, a deontologist would say that the decision was good or moral because they found a cure for cancer and did not focus on the animals life following the experiment. A utilitarian would make the decision to not test on the animal because it would cause the opposite of happiness for all species or living things involved. I personally believe that the human species should refrain from acting on animals for the sake of their own species. The utilitarian position provided a clear and concise argument against animal testing while deontology leaves a lot of unanswered questions.

Thursday, December 19, 2019

Essay about Relationships in Shakespeares As You Like It

Relationships in As You Like It Pronounce that sentence on me, my liege. I cannot live out of her company(Shakespeare quoted in Norton Anthology 1611). Who made these remarks about the dear Rosalind, was it Celia, the one whom she calls coz, or is Orlando the man that she is in love with? The question then becomes if Celia said these words what was her meaning. Is it that Celia is attracted to Rosalind as more than a friend or is this just an example of the female friendships of the time? This is a look at the different dynamics of relationships during the Renaissance. Those relationships of female friends, male bonding and homoeroticism in As You Like It. During the Renaissance the friendship between females†¦show more content†¦One can see the intense friendship that Celia and Rosalind share in the passage when Celia agrees that Rosalind does have a good reason to cry. The bond that is between female friends is analogous to the autonomy valorized in ideal male friendships (Shannon 658). Celia and Rosalinds friendship can also be example of the phenomenon of female friendship. The phenomenon of the female friendship that is so elusive in the writings of the Renaissance appears as an extraordinary dramatic effect, linking marriage and tyranny and enhancing the otherwise familiar disapprobation towards the absolute power of the patriarchal society (Shannon 658). The bonding between males is something that is not an obvious in the writings of the Renaissance as other types of relationships. It has been noted that the structures of a patriarchal society have an obligatory homosexuality built in the male dominated kinship systems (Sedgwick 3). It is apparent in As You Like It that there is a bond between Adam and Orlando. The question is whether this bond is that of male bonding, master/servant, or homoerotic. 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